Historical documents and naturalists' travel accounts

  1. Hyacinthine Macaw
  2. Glaucous Macaw
  3. Lear's Macaw
  4. Spix's Macaw
  5. A. purpurascens

1 - Hyacinthine Macaw

Generally accepted original description of Hyacinthine Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)

in Latin by John LATHAM in Index ornithologicus (1790) together with the entry on page 80 of his Supplement II to the General Synopsis of Birds published in 1802 and the entry in Latham's General History of Birds published in September1821

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw on Pages 57-60 of the Museum Leverianum

a work containing select specimens from the museum of the late Sir Ashton Lever written by George SHAW and published in 1792-6 followed by the entry in the Fifteenth Volume of the Naturalists\'s Miscellany by George Shaw and E. Noddy, published not long after the Museum Leverianum, and in Shaw\'s General Zoology (Vol. VIII, P.393) published in 1811/12.

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Depiction of Hyacinthine Macaw

in a painting by Alexandre Isidore LEROY DE BARDE (1777-1828) entitled Collection of Foreign Birds dated 1810.

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Illustration of Hyacinthine Macaw

by Sydenham EDWARDS in 1812 acquired by the 13th Earl of Derby for his famous library at Knowsley

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Description of the Hyacinthine Macaw

by L.J.P. VIEILLOT on page 260 of the Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire naturelle pulbished in 1816

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw or Anodorhynchus maximiliani in Avium Brasiliensium Species Novae

by Johannes Baptist von SPIX. Published in Munich (1824-5)

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Entry on a blue macaw entitled L'ARA HYACINTHE

MACROCERCUS Hyacinthinus in La Galerie des Oiseaux (Vol. 1) published in Paris in 1825. The authors were L.J.P VIEILLOT and M.P.OUDART. Vieillot was responsible for the text and Oudart provided the illustrations.

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Excerpts from An account of travels in Brazil at the command of his Majesty, Maximilian Joseph I, King of Bavaria, in the years 1817 to 1820

by Dr. J.B von SPIX and Dr. C.F.P. von MARTIUS. (German title:Reise in Brasilien auf Befehl Sr. Majestät Maximilian Joseph I Königs von Baiern in den Jahren 1817 bis 1820 gemacht von weiland Dr. John. Bapt. Von Spix und Dr. Carl Friedr. Phil. Von Martius)

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Entry on the Deep Blue Macaw or Anodorhyncus (sic) Maximiliani

in The Tower Menagerie by E.T. BENNETT. Published in 1829.

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw or Macrocercus hyacinthinus

in " The Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society Delineated Vol. II (Birds) published in London in 1831 with the sanction of the Council under the superintendence of the Secretary and Vice-Secretary of the Society" followed by an exchange of correspondence - in part acrimonious - between William Swainson and E.T.Bennett in The Magazine of Natural History on this entry in the same year

in " The Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society Delineated Vol. II (Birds) published in London in 1831 with the sanction of the Council under the superintendence of the Secretary and Vice-Secretary of the Society" followed by an exchange of correspondence - in part acrimonious - between William Swainson and E.T.Bennett in The Magazine of Natural History on this entry in the same year

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw in Monographia Psittacorum

by Johann Georg WAGLER published in Munich in 1832.

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Entry on Hyacinthine macaw in the Ornithologischer Atlas

in the Ornithologischer Atlas by Carl-Wilhelm HAHN, 1834-5

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Depiction of a Hyacinthine Macaw

in the so-called Disciples edition of Le Règne Animal distribué d'après son organisation (Edition accompagnée de planches gravées) by Georges CUVIER published in 1836 (four years after his death).

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw or La Perruche-Ara Bleu-cobalt

in Histoire Naturelle des Perroquets by Alexandre BOURJOT SAINT-HILAIRE. Published in Paris (1837-8)

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Excerpts from Travels on the Amazon

by Alfred Russel WALLACE published in 1853.

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Entries on blue macaws in the Monographie der Papageien oder vollständige Naturgeschichte aller bis jetzt bekannten Papageien mit getreuen und ausgemalten Abbildungen

by Christian Ludwig BREHM. Published in Jena and Paris in parts from 1842 to 1855 with 70 hand-coloured engravings.

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Use of species name Anodorhynchus

albeit slightly differently spelt, by K. LICHTENSTEIN in his Nomenclator Avium Musei Zoologici Berolinensis published in Berlin in 1854.

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Entry on Hyacinthine Macaw in Ornithologie brésilienne ou Histoire des oiseaux du Brésil remarquables par leur plumages, leur chant ou leurs habitudes

by Dr. Jean-Théodore DESCOURTILZ published between 1854 and 1856 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Entry with comments on blue macaws in the collection of Prince Massena d'Essling in Revue et Magazine de Zoologie

by Charles de SOUANCÉ published in February 1856.

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Excerpts referring to the Hyacinthine Macaw and its feeding habits from The Naturalist on the Amazons

by Henry Walter BATES published in 1863.

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw in Die Papageien, monographisch bearbeitet

by Otto FINSCH. Published 1867-8 in Leiden.

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw with illustration in Vogelbilder aus fernen Zonen

by Dr. Anton REICHENOW published in Kassel, Germany in 1883.

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Extract from The List of Animals in the London Zoo

compiled and published in 1883.

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw from The Speaking Parrots

by Dr. Karl RUSS, translated by Leonora Schultze and published in 1884.

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw (Page 285) in Parrots in Captivity

by W.T.GREENE published in three volumes between 1884 and 1887.

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)in the Catalogue of the Psittaci, or Parrots in the Collection of the British Museum

(page 147) by Count Tommaso SALVADORI published in 1891.

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw from The Royal Natural History (Vol. IV - pages 113-4)

edited by Richard LYDEKKER and published in 1895.

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw from Die sprechenden Papageien

by Dr. Karl RUSS. Published in Magdeburg in 1898.

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw in Foreign Birds for Cage and Aviary

(Part II) by Arthur G. BUTLER published in London in 1909.

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Extract from presentation by Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell on Longevity and Relative Viability in Mammals and Birds

reported in The Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the year 1911(Page 495).

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Brief report on age attained by the hyacinth macaw

published in the Auk in 1920 (Vol. XXXVII, Page 293)

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Report on the sighting and shooting of Hyacinthine Macaws in north-western Bahia

during the expedition of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in north-eastern Brazil in 1903. Published by Otmar Reiser in 1926 in the Denkschriften der mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse, Vol. 76 under the title (translated) of "The results of the zoological expedition of the Academy of Sciences to north-eastern Brazil in 1903" The report was presented at a meeting on 19th April 1923.

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw in Parrots and Parrot-like Birds in Aviculture

published by the Marquess of TAVISTOCK in the 1920s.

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw in Parrots and Parrot-like Birds

by the Duke of BEDFORD published c. 1954.

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw in Parrots, Cockatoos and Macaws

(Page 146) by Edward. J.BOOSEY published in 1956.

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Entry on Hyacinthine Macaw in Studies of Birds and Mammals of South America

(Page 20) by Axel AMUCHÁSTEGUI with descriptive text by Helmut SICK published in 1967.

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Entry on the Hyacinthine Macaw in The Parrots of South America

(Page 43) by Rosemary LOW published in London in 1972.

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2 - Glaucous Macaw

Entry on the Glaucous Macaw or guaa obi

in Father José SÁNCHEZ LABRADOR's Peces y Aves del Paraguay Natural originally written in manuscript form in 1767 and published in paperback in 1968.

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Entry on the Glaucous Macaw or Del azul in Apuntamientos para la historia natural de los Páxaros (Vol.2)

by Felix d'AZARA, published in Madrid (1802).

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Description of the Glaucous Macaw in Voyages dans l'Amerique Méridionale (depuis 1781 jusqu'à 1801)

by Felix D'AZARA with added notes by Baron Georges CUVIER published in 1809

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Generally accepted original description of the Glaucous Macaw or L'Ara azuvert in Nouveau dictionnaire d'histoire naturelle (Vol.2)

by Louis Jean Pierre VIEILLOT, published in Paris (1816).

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Description of Glaucous Macaw

in Monographia Psittacorum by Johann Georg WAGLER published in Munich in 1832 (Page 676).

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Entry on Glaucous Macaw

in Dr. Ockens Allgemeine Naturgeschichte für alle Stände. 5th Volume, Page 370 by Dr. Lorenz OCKENFUSS. Published in 1835.

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Excerpts referring to the Glaucous Macaw from Voyages dans l'Amerique méridionale

by Alcide Dessalines D'ORBIGNY. Published in parts between 1835 and 1847.

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Entry on the Glaucous Macaw or La Perruche-Ara Glauque in Histoire Naturelle des Perroquets

by Alexandre BOURJOT SAINT-HILAIRE. Published in Paris (1837-8).

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Entry on the Glaucous Macaw

in the Ornithologischer Atlas by Carl-Wilhelm HAHN. Published in 1840.

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Various reports on the Glaucous Macaw

in the Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London.

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Entry on Corrientes Province

in "Geography or first division of " The English Cyclopaedia" conducted by Charles Knight. Published in 1866.

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Extract relating to the Paraná-Paraguay river system

from the entry on the Argentine Confederation in "Geography or first division of " The English Cyclopaedia" conducted by Charles Knight. Published in 1866.

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Entry on the Glaucous Macaw in Die Papageien, monographisch bearbeitet

by Otto FINSCH. Published 1867-8 in Leiden.

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Entry on the Glaucous Macaw with illustration in Vogelbilder aus fernen Zonen

by Dr Anton REICHENOW, published in Kassel, Germany in 1883

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Entry on the Glaucous Macaw (Anodorhynchus glaucus) in the Catalogue of the Psittaci, or Parrots in the Collection of the British Museum

(page 149) by Count Tommaso SALVADORI published in 1891.

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Entry on the Glaucous Macaw from Die sprechenden Papageien

by Dr. Karl RUSS. Published in Magdeburg in 1898. Includes monochrome illustration of macaw by Karl Neunzig in 1895.

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Entry on the Glaucous Macaw in Foreign Birds for Cage and Aviary

(Part II) by Arthur G. BUTLER published in London in 1909.

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Important observations in the Paraguayan forests.

By Hans, Baron Berlepsch. Published in 1917 in the Journal für Ornithologie and translated by the website editor.

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Entry on the Glaucous Macaw in Parrots and Parrot-like Birds in Aviculture

published by the Marquess of TAVISTOCK in the 1920s.

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Entry on the Glaucous Macaw in Parrots and Parrot-like Birds

by the Duke of BEDFORD published c. 1954.

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An extract from Notes from South America

on a visit to Buenos Aires Zoo by Sydney Porter published in the magazine of the Avicultural Society in October 1938 (Fifth Series, Vol. III, No 10, Page 290)

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Entry on the Glaucous Macaw in Parrots, Cockatoos and Macaws

(Page 145) by Edward. J.BOOSEY published in 1956.

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Entry on the Glaucous Macaw in The Parrots of South America

(Page 44) by Rosemary LOW published in London in 1972.

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3 - Lear's Macaw

Diary entry of William Swainson

on October 9th 1817. Probably the earliest reference to the Lear's Macaw

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Edward LEAR and his illustration of a blue macaw described by him as Macrocercus hyacinthinus or Hyacinthine macaw in his Illustrations of the family of the Psittacidae

published 1830-32, but later identified as different species by Prince Charles Bonaparte and named after the famous illustrator in the Iconographie des Perroquets (1857-8).

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Original description of Lear\'s Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari)

by Prince Charles BONAPARTE in the Iconographie des Perroquets (1857-8)

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Entry on the Lear's Macaw

in Die Papageien mongraphisch bearbeitet by Otto FINSCH. Published 1867-8 in Leiden.

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Supplementary entry on the Lear's Macaw

in Vogelbilder aus fernen Zonen by Dr Anton REICHENOW published in Kassel, Germany in 1883.

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Entry on the Lear's macaw (Anodorhynchus leari) in the Catalogue of the Psittaci, or Parrots in the Collection of the British Museum

(page 148) by Count Tommaso SALVADORI published in 1891.

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Entry on the Lear's Macaw from Die sprechenden Papageien

by Dr. Karl RUSS. Published in Magdeburg in 1898.

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An article on the Lear\'s Macaw in the Avicultural Magazine

the Journal of the Avicultural Society by the Rev. Hubert D.ASTLEY published in February 1907 (Vol. V, No. 4, Pages 111-113)

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Entry on the Lear's Macaw in Foreign Birds for Cage and Aviary

(Part II) by Arthur G. BUTLER published in London in 1909.

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Entry on the Lear's Macaw in Parrots and Parrot-like Birds in Aviculture

published by the Marquess of TAVISTOCK in the 1920s.

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Extract from a report in the magazine of the Avicultural Society

from a report on the Crystal Palace show in the magazine of the Avicultural Society published in March 1926 (Fourth Series, Vol IV, No 3)

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Entry on the Lear's Macaw in Parrots and Parrot-like Birds

by the Duke of BEDFORD published c.1954.

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Entry on the Lear's Macaw in Parrots, Cockatoos and Macaws

(Page 148) by Edward. J.BOOSEY published in 1956.

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Article entitled Specimens of Lear's Macaw in the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam

by K.H.VOOUS. Published in L'oiseau et la revue française d'ornithologie in 1965.

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Entry on the Lear's Macaw in The Parrots of South America

(Page 45) by Rosemary LOW published in London in 1972.

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Special supplement to Alauda 47 (1), 1979 by Jacques Vielliard

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Gardens of Lear's Macaws by João Marcos Rosa and Gustavo Nolasco

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4 - Spix's Macaw

The Description of the Spix's Macaw or Arara hyacinthinus in Avium Brasiliensium Species Novae

by Johannes Baptist von SPIX published in Munich, 1824-5

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Description of the Spix's Macaw in Monographia Psittacorum

by Johann Georg WAGLER. Published 1832 in Munich.

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Entry on Spix's Macaw or la Petite Perruche-Ara Glauque

in Histoire Naturelle des Perroquets Laisses Inedites par Levaillant ou Recemment Decouverts by Alexandre Bourjot Saint-Hilaire published in 1837-8.

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Entry on the Spix's Macaw in Die Papageien, monographisch bearbeitet

by Otto FINSCH. Published 1867-8 in Leiden.

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Report on the Spix's Macaw

by P.H. SCLATER, Secretary to the Zoological Society of London, in the Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the year 1878 (Page 976).

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Supplementary entry on the Spix's Macaw in Vogelbilder aus fernen Zonen by Dr. Anton REICHENOW published in Kassel, Germany in 1883.

Supplementary entry on the Spix's Macaw in Vogelbilder aus fernen Zonen by Dr. Anton Reichenow by Blue Macaws

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Entry on the Spix's Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii)

in the Catalogue of the Psittaci, or Parrots in the Collection of the British Museum(page 150) by Count Tommaso SALVADORI published in 1891

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Entry on the Spix's Macaw from Die sprechenden Papageien

by Dr. Karl RUSS. Published in Magdeburg in 1898.

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Excerpts from articles and letters in the Avicultural Magazine

the journal of the Avicultural Society, from 1897 to 1902 referring to the Spix's Macaw in captivity.

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Entry on the Spix's Macaw in Foreign Birds for Cage and Aviary

(Part II) by Arthur G. BUTLER published in London in 1909.

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Report on sighting of Spix's Macaws at Paranaguá during the expedition of the Austrian Academy of Sciences to north-eastern Brazil in 1903.

Published by Othmar Reiser in 1926 in Denkschriften der mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse, Vol. 76 under "Die Ergebnisse der Zool. Expedition der Akad. der Wissenschaften nach nordostbrasilien im Jahre 1903".

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Entry on the Spix's Macaw in Parrots and Parrot-like Birds in Aviculture

published by the Marquess of TAVISTOCK in the 1920s.

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Extract from report in the magazine of the Avicultural Society

from report on Paignton and District Fanciers' show in the magazine of the Avicultural Society published in January 1926. Fourth Series, Vol IV, No. 1

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An Extract From Mr Karl Plaths collection

by Karl PLATH published in May 1930 in the journal of the Avicultural Society.(Fourth Series, Vol. VIII, No 5, Page 134)

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The Spix Macaw (Cyanopsittacus spixi)

by Karl PLATH published in "Aviculture" the journal of the Avicultural Society of America, in April 1931. It includes a coloured plate by Karl Plath of the Spix's Macaw.

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Extract from Birds at the new Chicago Zoological Park

by Karl PLATH, then Curator of Birds, published in August 1937. (Fifth Series, Vol. II, No. 8, Page 288)

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Entry on the Spix's Macaw in Parrots, Cockatoos and Macaws

(Page 157) by Edward. J.BOOSEY published in 1956.

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Entry on the Spix's Macaw in The Parrots of South America

(Page 45) by Rosemary LOW published in London in 1972.

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5 - A. purpurascens

Entry with image on Anodorhynchus purpurpascens

in Walter Rothschild's Extinct Birds published in London in 1907.

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Entries on the blue macaws in Monographia Psittacorum

Entries on the blue macaws in Monographia Psittacorum by Johann Georg Wagler published in Munich in 1832

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 " Naturam expellas furca, tamen usque recurret "

( If you drive out nature with a pitchfork, she will soon find a way back)

Horace (65-8 BC)